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The "Timber Bridge Initiative" (TBI) has caused concern for many concrete groups. These groups say the program, which dedicates monies to research and market timber bridges, is unfair to the concrete and steel bridge industries. The TBI was established by congress to "improve rural transportation networks and revitalize rural economies by using wood for bridge construction." The National Concrete Bridge Council, a group consisting of several associations, has proteste the program. It published a paper about the TBI, alleging many faults with both the ethics behind the TBI and the use of timber as a bridge material. The Pennsylvania Departent of Transportation (PennDOT) was granted monies to construct 17 demonstration timber bridges through the TBI. The bridges' performance will be monitored for 3 years.