The research arm of The Aberdeen Group, publishers of Concrete Journal & Trader, concluded a readership study of the plant-produced concrete industry earlier this year. Questions included the topics of finance, marketing, management, and size. More than 300 people answered the survey, including plant owners, officers, and managers. They manufacture all kinds of concrete products. The median company makes more than one product, has been in business about 32 years, has an annual sales volume of $3.8 million, and employs 37 non-union workers. The median value of owned and leased equipment is $963,414. The median spent on materials, supplies, and equipment by the average reader's company is $500,000. Of those firms budgeting in these areas, based on the median sales volume and the median percentage spent in each area, readers spend about $215,999 per year on marketing and communication, $231,157 per year on research and development, and $238,736 per year on engineering.