Placing a sealer on the surface may be effective if the damage is not to deep. A solvent based acrylic can be effective, as can treatment with an alkali silicate (sodium, potassium or lithium). If the damage is deeper than a couple of millimeters (1 mm is about the thickness of a dime) then a more aggressive treatment is likely required. Surface preparation by shot blasting and placement of a high build epoxy coating may be required. Ensure that this repair is compatible with the moisture emission rate of the slab, as epoxies can be quickly damaged if there is moisture coming through the slab. Consult your local flooring material supplier.
If extensive repair is required it is recommended that you consult a materials engineer to review the situation. They may suggest a petrographic exam or other diagnostic tests.
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